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  Most popular articles (Since May 31, 2019)

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Nonlinear analysis of electroencephalogram signals while listening to the holy Quran
Mahsa Vaghefi, Ali Motie Nasrabadi, Seyed Mohammad Reza Hashemi Golpayegani, Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, Shahriar Gharibzadeh
April-June 2019, 9(2):100-110
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_37_18  PMID:31316903
Background: Electrical activity of the brain, resulting from electrochemical signaling between neurons, is recorded by electroencephalogram (EEG). The neural network has complex behavior at different levels that strongly confirms the nonlinear nature of interactions in the human brain. This study has been designed and implemented with the aim of determining the effects of religious beliefs and the effect of listening to Holy Quran on electrical activity of the brain of the Iranian Persian-speaking Muslim volunteers. Methods: The brain signals of 47 Persian-speaking Muslim volunteers while listening to the Holy Quran consciously, and while listening to the Holy Quran and the Arabic text unconsciously were used. Therefore, due to the nonlinear nature of EEG signals, these signals are studied using approximate entropy, sample entropy, Hurst exponent, and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. Results: Statistical analysis of the results has shown that listening to the Holy Quran consciously increases approximate entropy and sample entropy, and decreases Hurst Exponent and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis compared to other cases. Conclusion: Consciously listening to the Holy Quran decreases self-similarity and correlation of brain signal and instead increases complexity and dynamicity in the brain.
  267 53 -
Objective assessment of skin repigmentation using a multilayer perceptron
Juan Fernando Chica, Sayonara Zaputt, Javier Encalada, Christian Salamea, Melissa Montalvo
April-June 2019, 9(2):88-99
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_52_18  PMID:31316902
Background: Vitiligo is a pathology that causes the appearance of achromic macules on the skin that can spread on to other areas of the body. It is estimated that it affects 1.2% of the world population and can disrupt the mental state of people in whom this disease has developed, generating negative feelings that can become suicidal in the worst of cases. The present work focuses on the development of a support tool that allows to objectively quantifying the repigmentation of the skin. Methods: We propose a novel method based on artificial neural networks that use characteristics of the interaction of light with the skin to determine areas of healthy skin and skin with vitiligo. We used photographs of specific areas of skin containing vitiligo. We select as independent variables: the type of skin, the amount of skin with vitiligo and the amount of repigmented skin. Considering these variables, the experiments were organized in an orthogonal table. We analyzed the result of the method based on three parameters (sensitivity, specificity, and F1-Score) and finally, its results were compared with other methods proposed in similar research. Results: The proposed method demonstrated the best performance of the three methods, and it also showed its capability to detect healthy skin and skin with vitiligo in areas up to 1 × 1 pixels. Conclusion: The results show that the proposed method has the potential to be used in clinical applications. It should be noted that the performance could be significantly improved by increasing the training patterns.
  204 47 -
Providing a four-layer method based on deep belief network to improve emotion recognition in electroencephalography in brain signals
Seyed Mohammad Reza Mousavinasr, Ali Pourmohammad, Mohammad Sadegh Moayed Saffari
April-June 2019, 9(2):77-87
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_34_17  PMID:31316901
Background: One of the fields of research in recent years that has been under focused is emotion recognition in electroencephalography (EEG) signals. This study provides a four-layer method to improve people's emotion recognition through these signals and deep belief neural networks. Methods: In this study, using DEAP dataset, a four-layer method is established, which includes (1) preprocessing, (2) extracting features, (3) dimension reduction, and (4) emotion identification and estimation. To find the optimal choice in some of the steps of these layers, three different tests have been conducted. The first is finding the perfect window in feature extraction section that resulted in superiority of Hamming window to the other windows. The second is choosing the most appropriate number of filter bank and the best result was 26. The third test was also emotion recognition that its accuracy was 92.93 for arousal dimension, 92.64 for valence dimension, 93.14 for dominance dimension in two-class experiment and 76.28 for the arousal, 74.83 for the valence, and 75.64 for dominance in three-class experiment. Results: The results of this method show an improvement of 12.34% and 7.74% in two- and three-class levels in the arousal dimension. This improvement in the valence is 12.77 and 8.52, respectively. Conclusion: The results show that the proposed method can be used to improve the accuracy of emotion recognition.
  188 37 -
The ellipselet transform
Zahra Khodabandeh, Hossein Rabbani, Alireza Mehri Dehnavi, Omid Sarrafzadeh
July-September 2019, 9(3):145-157
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_42_17  
Background: A fair amount of important objects in natural images have circular and elliptical shapes. For example, the nucleus of most of the biological cells is circular, and a number of parasites such as Oxyuris have elliptical shapes in microscopic images. Hence, atomic representations by two-dimensional (2D) basis functions based on circle and ellipse can be useful for processing these images. The first researches have been done in this domain by introducing circlet transform. Methods: The main goal of this article is expanding the circlet to a new one with elliptical basis functions. Results: In this article, we first introduce a new transform called ellipselet and then compare it with other X-let transforms including 2D-discrete wavelet transform, dual-tree complex wavelet, curvelet, contourlet, steerable pyramid, and circlet transform in the application of image denoising. Conclusion: Experimental results show that for noises under 30, the ellipselet is better than other geometrical X-lets in terms of Peak Signal to Noise Ratio, especially for Lena which contains more circular structures. However, for Barbara which has fine structures in its texture, it has worse results than dual-tree complex wavelet and steerable pyramid.
  142 46 -
Evaluation of mechanical properties and cell viability of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate)-chitosan/Al2O3nanocomposite scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering
Elahe Bahremandi Toloue, Saeed Karbasi, Hossein Salehi, Mohammad Rafienia
April-June 2019, 9(2):111-116
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_56_18  PMID:31316904
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alumina nanowires as reinforcement phases in polyhydroxybutyrate-chitosan (PHB-CTS) scaffolds to apply in cartilage tissue engineering. Methods: A certain proportion of polymers and alumina was chosen. After optimization of electrospun parameters, PHB, PHB-CTS, and PHB-CTS/3% Al2O3nanocomposite scaffolds were randomly electrospun. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, water contact angle measurement, tensile strength, and chondrocyte cell culture studies were used to evaluate the physical, mechanical, and biological properties of the scaffolds. Results: The average fiber diameter of scaffolds was 300–550 nm and the porosity percentages for the first layer of all types of scaffolds were more than 81%. Scaffolds' hydrophilicity was increased by adding alumina and CTS. The tensile strength of scaffolds decreased by adding CTS and increased up to more than 10 folds after adding alumina. Chondrocyte viability and proliferation on scaffolds were better after adding CTS and alumina to PHB. Conclusion: With regard to the results, electrospun PHB-CTS/3% Al2O3scaffold has the appropriate potential to apply in cartilage tissue engineering.
  152 27 1
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Drowsiness analysis using common spatial pattern and extreme learning machine based on electroencephalogram signal
Osmalina Nur Rahma, Akif Rahmatillah
April-June 2019, 9(2):130-136
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_54_18  PMID:31316907
An alarm system has become essential to prevent someone from drowsiness while driving, considering the high incidence due to fatigue or drowsiness. This study offered an alternative to overcome all the limitations provided by the conventional system to detect sleepiness based on the driver's brain electrical activity using wearable electroencephalogram (EEG), which is lighter and easy to use. The EEG signals were collected using EMOTIV Epoc + and then were decomposed into narrowband frequency, such as delta, theta, alpha, and beta using DWT. The relative power, as the result of feature extraction, then were processed further by calculating its variance using the common spatial pattern (CSP) method to optimize the accuracy of extreme learning machine (ELM). Comparison of relative power between awake and drowsy state showed that during the drowsy state, theta-wave, alpha-wave, and beta-wave were tend to be higher than in the awake state. However, despite with the help of ELM, the accuracy was not too high (below 87%). The feature extraction which continued by calculating its variance using CSP algorithm before classified by ELM obtained a high accuracy, even with small amount of data training. This showed that CSP combining with ELM could be useful to shorten the time in training/calibration session, yet still, obtained high accuracy in classifying the awake state and drowsy state. The overall average accuracy of testing ranged from 91.67% to 93.75%. This study could increase the ability of EEG in detecting drowsiness that is important to prevent the risk caused by driving in a drowsy state.
  148 28 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Design and implementation of a customable automatic vehicle location system in ambulances and emergency vehicle systems
Alireza Shirani, Mohammadreza Sehhati
July-September 2019, 9(3):165-173
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_41_18  
Background: Automatic vehicle location (AVL) refers to a system that calculates the geographical location of any vehicle, i.e., latitude and longitude. Vehicle location information about one or more moving vehicles can be stored in the internal memory and accessed when vehicles are available (offline tracking). It is also possible to get location information on a real-time basis (online tracking). The real-time tracking systems designed to date may incorporate three devices: global positioning system (GPS), geographic information system, and cellular communication platforms that may be either a general packet radio service (GPRS) or any private and local radiofrequency network. Methods: The GPS-based navigation system has been designed so as to allow for user-friendly real-time tracking applications for any emergency vehicles like ambulances. First, GPS coordinates are obtained from the SIM908 module and sent via to a server transmission control protocol/internet protocol. Server codes, which are written in C#, load Google map to show real-time location. Results: We designed online tracking AVL hardware in the two simple and advanced versions. The latter enables both the ambulance driver and the data center to monitor path real-time besides enabling the vehicle driver to receive and make calls and send or receive messages. The former only sends latitude and longitude to the data server continuously, and the path travelled by vehicle is displayed. Conclusion: SIM908 integrates GSM, GPRS, and GPS in one package. It can be a proper choice for real-time economic tracking systems despite its low accuracy in finding geolocations.
  144 21 -
Introduction of a simple algorithm to create synthetic-Computed tomography of the head from magnetic resonance imaging
Nahid Chegeni, Mohamad Javad Tahmasebi Birgani, Fariba Farhadi Birgani, Daryoush Fatehi, Gholamreza Akbarizadeh, Marziyeh Tahmasbi
April-June 2019, 9(2):123-129
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_26_18  PMID:31316906
Background: Recently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based radiotherapy has become a favorite science field for treatment planning purposes. In this study, a simple algorithm was introduced to create synthetic computed tomography (sCT) of the head from MRI. Methods: A simple atlas-based method was proposed to create sCT images based on the paired T1/T2-weighted MRI and bone/brain window CT. Dataset included 10 patients with glioblastoma multiforme and 10 patients with other brain tumors. To generate a sCT image, first each MR from dataset was registered to the target-MR, the resulting transformation was applied to the corresponding CT to create the set of deformed CTs. Then, deformed-CTs were fused to generate a single sCT image. The sCT images were compared with the real CT images using geometric measures (mean absolute error [MAE] and dice similarity coefficient of bone [DSCbone]) and Hounsfield unit gamma-index (ГHU) with criteria 100 HU/2 mm. Results: The evaluations carried out by MAE, DSCbone, and ГHUshowed a good agreement between the synthetic and real CT images. The results represented the range of 78–93 HU and 0.80–0.89 for MAE and DSCbone, respectively. The ГHUalso showed that approximately 91%–93% of pixels fulfilled the criteria 100 HU/2 mm for brain tumors. Conclusion: This method showed that MR sequence (T1w or T2w) should be selected depending on the type of tumor. In addition, the brain window synthetic CTs are in better agreement with real CT relative to bone window sCT images.
  121 24 -
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Image quality assessment of the digital radiography units in Tabriz, Iran: A phantom study
Nahideh Gharehaghaji, Davood Khezerloo, Tohid Abbasiazar
April-June 2019, 9(2):137-142
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_30_18  PMID:31316908
Creating a high-quality image with the low patient dose is one of the most important goals in medical X-ray imaging. In this study, the image quality parameters of the digital radiographic units in Tabriz city were considered and compared with the international protocols. The image quality parameters were measured at 11 high workload digital radiography (DR) imaging centers in Tabriz city, and the results were compared to DINN 6868/58 standards. All centers equipped with the direct DR units passed the spatial resolution, low contrast detectability, contrast dynamic range, and noise tests, while the computed radiography (CR) units only could pass the two last tests. The highest spatial resolution was observed 3.2 lp/mm in the DR unit while the lowest one was 1.8 lp/mm in the CR unit. The highest noise was measured to be 0.03 OD that was observed in the DR unit. The most difference between the nominal and measured peak kilovoltage and mAs was 3.1% and 6.8%, respectively. The entrance surface air kerma in all units was obtained <0.63 mGy. The measured half-value layer range was between 2.4 and 3.54 mmAl. The physical parameters of image quality such as spatial resolution, contrast, and noise are robustness quantitative parameters for the assessment of the image quality performance of the units. Therefore, measurement and control of these parameters using two-dimensional phantoms are very critical.
  123 19 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Gas sensor array system properties for detecting bacterial biofilms
Suryani Dyah Astuti, Yanuar Mukhammad, Sirlus Andreanto Jasman Duli, Alfian Pramudita Putra, Ernie Maduratna Setiawatie, Kuwat Triyana
July-September 2019, 9(3):158-164
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_60_18  
Background: Gas sensor array system is a device that mimics the work of how the nose smells using the gas sensors that could give response toward specific odors. It is used for characterizing the different blended gas that is suited with the biological working nose principle. Thus, it could be used to detect the dental and oral diseases. Periodontitis is one of the diseases caused by the damage on the teeth due to the chronic infection on the gingival structure marked with bacterial plaque and calculus. This study aims to develop an electric nose for odor detection application on the periodontal bacterial biofilm as early detection device for dental and oral disease. Methods: This device is designed as a portable device to ease the data acquisition. The measured data were stored at a database system connected to a real-time computer. A gas array sensor system with six gas sensors (TGS 826, TGS 2602, TGS 2600, TGS 2611, TGS 2612, and TGS 2620) has been assembled for the early detection application for dental and oral disease excreted by the bacterial biofilm that caused dental and oral disease, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Streptococcus mutans, and Enterococcus faecalis. Results: TGS 826 and TGS 2602 sensor had the best response showed by the high ADC delta value. Conclusion: GS 826 and TGS 2602 sensor could be used as a candidate for early detection device for dental and oral disease.
  106 30 -
Interpretation of in-air output ratio of wedged fields in different measurement conditions
Parinaz Mehnati, Farideh Biglari, Ali Jomehzadeh
April-June 2019, 9(2):117-122
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_36_18  PMID:31316905
Background: The collimator scatter factor (Sc) is one of the most important parameters in monitor unit (MU) calculation. There are several factors that impact Scvalues, including head structures, backscatter in dose monitoring chambers, and wedges. The objective of this study was to investigate the variation of Scwith different buildup cap materials, wall thickness of buildup caps, source-to-chamber distances (SCDs), ionization chambers, and wedge angles in 6 MV photon beam. Methods: In this study, copper and Perspex buildup caps were made with two different thicknesses for each buildup cap. Measurements were performed on an Elekta Compact medical linear accelerator (6 MV) using RK dosimeter with a sensitive volume of 0.120 cm3 and Farmer-type ion chamber with a sensitive volume of 0.65 cm3. In all measurements, buildup caps and ionization chambers were positioned such as to stand vertically to the beam central axis. It was also investigated the effect of internal wedge with different angles (30° and 60°) different SCDs on Sc. Results: It was found in large field sizes, Scvalues in Perspex buildup cap were higher than copper. Different SCDs and type of ion chamber and wall thickness of buildup caps had no significant influence on Scvalues. The presence of wedge influenced Scvalues significantly. Variation of Scin wedged fields compared to open fields had a maximum deviation of 0.9% and 6.8% in 30° and 60° wedge angles, respectively. Conclusion: It was found that the presence of wedges had a significant influence on Scand increases with wedge angles. As such, it should be taken into account in manual MU calculations.
  112 22 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
A review of controlled drug delivery systems based on cells and cell membranes
Seyed Mohammad Zargar, Darioush Khodabakhshi Hafshejani, Asghar Eskandarinia, Mohamad Rafienia, Anousheh Zargar Kharazi
July-September 2019, 9(3):181-189
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_53_18  
Novel drug delivery systems have ameliorated drugs' pharmacokinetics and declined undesired ramifications while led to a better patient compliance by extending the time of release. In fact, although there has been a multitude of encouraging achievements in controlled drug release, the application of micro- and nano-carriers is confronted with some challenges such as rapid clearance and inefficient targeting. In addition, since cell systems can be an appropriate alternative to micro- and nano-particles, they have been used as biological carriers. In general, features such as stable release into blood, slow clearance, efficient targeting, and high biocompatibility are the main properties of cells applied as drug carriers. Furthermore, some cells such as erythrocytes, leukocytes, stem cells, and platelets have been used as release systems. Hence, most common cells that were used as aforementioned release systems are going to be presented in this review article.
  98 18 -
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Evaluation of dose rate and photon energy dependence of gafchromic EBT3 film irradiating with 6 MV and Co-60 photon beams
Gholamreza Ataei, Maral Rezaei, Kourosh Ebrahimnejad Gorji, Amin Banaei, Nouraddin Abdi Goushbolagh, Bagher Farhood, Mahmoud Bagheri, Razzagh Abedi Firouzjah
July-September 2019, 9(3):204-210
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_45_18  
Gafchromic films are utilized for two-dimensional dose distribution measurements, especially in radiotherapy. In this study, we investigated a close connection between energy and dose rate of Gafchromic EBT3 films irradiating with 6 MV and Co-60 photon beams over a broad dose range. EBT3 films were exposed to 6 MV and Co-60 photon beams using 4 and 2 Gy/min dose rates over a 10–400 cGy dose range. The films were scanned in red, green, and blue channels to obtain the optical density (OD)–dose curves. The OD–dose curves resulted from three-color scans for different photon energies and dose rates were compared by statistical independent t-test. For the radiations of Co-60 and 6 MV photon beams, the highest correlation was obtained between the 2 and 4 Gy/min dose rates with red and green channels, respectively. Moreover, the red channel had a greater OD response per dose value, following the green and blue channels. There was no significant difference between different photon energies' (Co-60 and 6 MV) and dose rates' (2 and 4 Gy/min) dependence on OD-dose response of EBT3 films over a broad domain of radiation dose, except for different photon energies in the blue channel. Our results revealed that the OD-dose response of EBT3 films is independent on photon energies (Co-60 and 6 MV) and dose rate (2 and 4 Gy/min) in the evaluated dose range (10–400 cGy). Therefore, the EBT3 films are suitable, consistent, and reliable instruments for dose measurements in radiotherapy.
  88 13 -
NOTICE OF RETRACTION
Retraction: Vesselness-guided Active Contour: A coronary vessel extraction method

April-June 2019, 9(2):144-144
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_28_19  PMID:31316910
  82 13 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Diagnosis of common headaches using hybrid expert-based systems
Monire Khayamnia, Mohammadreza Yazdchi, Aghile Heidari, Mohsen Foroughipour
July-September 2019, 9(3):174-180
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_47_18  
Background: Headache is one of the most common forms of medical complaints with numerous underlying causes and many patterns of presentation. The first step for starting the treatment is the recognition stage. In this article, the problem of primary and secondary headache diagnosis is considered, and we evaluate the use of intelligence techniques and soft computing in order to predict the diagnosis of common headaches. Methods: A fuzzy expert-based system for the diagnosis of common headaches by Learning-From-Examples (LFE) algorithm is presented, in which Mamdani model was used in fuzzy inference engine using Max–Min as Or–And operators, and the Centroid method was used as defuzzification technique. In addition, this article has analyzed common headache using two classification techniques, and headache diagnosis based on a support vector machine (SVM) and multilayer perceptron (MLP)-based method has been proposed. The classifiers were used to recognize the four types of common headache, namely migraine, tension, headaches as a result of infection, and headaches as a result of increased intra cranial presser. Results: By using a dataset obtained from 190 patients, suffering from primary and secondary headaches, who were enrolled from a medical center located in Mashhad, the diagnostic fuzzy system was trained by LFE algorithm, and on an average, 123 pieces of If-Then rules were produced for fuzzy system, and it was observed that the system had the ability of correct recognition by a rate of 85%. Using the headache diagnostic system by MLP- and SVM-based decision support system, the accuracy of classification into four types improved by 88% when using the MLP and by 90% with the SVM classifier. The performance of all methods is evaluated using classification accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and specificity. Conclusion: As the linguistic rules may be incomplete when human experts express their knowledge, and according to the proximity of common headache symptoms and importance of early diagnosis, the LFE training algorithm is more effective than human expert system. Favorable results obtained by the implementation and evaluation of the suggested medical decision support system based on the MLP and SVM show that intelligence techniques can be very useful for the recognition of common headaches with similar symptoms.
  74 21 -
NOTICE OF RETRACTION
Retraction: Extraction of the best frames in coronary angiograms for diagnosis and analysis

April-June 2019, 9(2):143-143
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_27_19  PMID:31316909
  79 12 -
SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
Activation of p53 gene expression and synergistic antiproliferative effects of 5-fluorouracil and β-escin on MCF7 cells
Raziyeh Mazrouei, Elham Raeisi, Yves Lemoigne, Esfandiar Heidarian
July-September 2019, 9(3):196-203
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_44_18  
One of the most common malignancies in women is breast cancer. β-escin has pharmacological anticancer effects. 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has antimetabolite and antiproliferative properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of 5-FU and β-escin on apoptosis, colony formation, Bcl-2 signaling protein, and p53 gene expression in MCF7 breast cancer cell line. The cytotoxic effects, the number of colonies, apoptosis, p53 gene expression, and Bcl-2 signaling protein of the combined 5-FU and β-escin on MCF7 cells were determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, clonogenic assay, flow cytometry, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and western blotting methods, respectively. Half-maximal inhibitory concentration values of β-escin and 5-FU were 80 μg/ml and 2 μM, respectively. The combination of 5-FU and β-escin on MCF7 cell viability showed a combination index equal to 0.5. The expression of p53 and apoptosis increased in the combination of 5-FU and β-escin on MCF7 cells compared to that of control group (P < 0.05). In addition, the number of colonies and Bcl-2 signaling protein in combination of 5-FU and β-escin decreased with respect to untreated control cells or single treatment of 5-FU and β-escin. The combination of 5-FU and β-escin not only has synergistic effects by increasing cell apoptosis and p53 gene expression but also decreases Bcl-2 signaling protein in MCF7 cell lines.
  54 16 -
Estimation of absorbed dose of the thyroid gland in patients undergoing 64-slice head computed tomography and comparison the results with ImPACT software and computed tomography scan dose index
Asghar Maziar, Reza Paydar, Ghazal Azadbakht, Daryoush Shahbazi-Gahrouei
July-September 2019, 9(3):190-195
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_40_18  
Thyroid exposure to radiation in brain computed tomography (CT) scan is of great value since it is considered as a vital organ. This study aimed to investigate the absorbed dose of thyroid by various protocols of head CT in patients referring to 64-slice CT scan center and to compare the values with the calculated dose by imaging performance and assessment of CT (ImPACT) method. Also, the values of CT scan dose index (CTDI) were calculated with semiconductor detector. In this cross-sectional study, 120 outpatients including three groups of forty individuals over 40 years old referring to the hospital radiology centers in Tehran for head CT were chosen and 3 thermo-luminescence dosimeter (TLD-GR200) were applied on thyroid gland of each patient. For brain CT, Absorbed and effective doses of thyroid gland were calculated by ImPACT software. In addition, semiconductor detector in head CTDI phantom calculated CTDI for the applied protocols. Mean effective dose of thyroid gland in brain scan group was calculated by TLD and ImPACT software which showed no significant difference (P < 0.001). Mean effective dose of thyroid gland in unidirectional and bi-directional sinus scan by TLD and ImPACT software were different significantly (P < 0.001). Also, the differences between CTDI values shown by brain and sinus scan protocol with semiconductor detector and those CTDI were significant (P < 0.001). The calculated values of absorbed dose and effective doses of thyroid by TLD and ImPACT software were not significantly different. Mean effective dose calculated for thyroid gland in head scans by TLD and ImPACT was less than the annual permissive level for thyroid gland suggested by International Committee on Radiological Protection. In this study, calculated values of thyroid effective dose in brain scan with 64-slice scanner were less than the calculated values in a similar study.
  48 10 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Sensitivity uniformity ratio as a new index to optimize the scanning geometry for fluorescent molecular tomography
Anita Ebrahimpour, Seyed Salman Zakariaee, Marjaneh Hejazi
January-March 2019, 9(1):42-49
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_22_18  PMID:30967989
Background: Molecular fluorescence imaging is widely used as a noninvasive method to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms. In the optical imaging system, the sensitivity is the change of the intensity received by the detector for the changed optical characteristics (fluorescence) in each sample point. Sensitivity could be considered as a function of imaging geometry. A favor imaging system has a uniform and high-sensitivity coefficient for each point of the sample. In this study, a new parameter was proposed which the optimal angle between the source and detector could be determined based on this parameter. Methods: For evaluation of the new method, a two-dimensional mesh with a radius of 20 mm and 5133 nodes was built. In each reconstruction, 0.5-mm fluorescence heterogeneity with a contrast-to-purpose ratio of fluorescence yield of 10 was randomly added at different points of the sample. The source and the detector were simulated in different geometric conditions. The calculations were performed using the NIRFAST and MATLAB software. The relationship between mean squared error (MSE) and sensitivity uniformity ratio (SUR) was evaluated using the correlation coefficient. Finally, based on the new index, an optimal geometrical strategy was introduced. Results: There was a negative correlation coefficient (R = −0.78) with the inverse relationship between the SUR and MSE indices. The reconstructed images showed that the better image quality achieved using the optimal geometry for all scanning depths. For the conventional geometry, there is an artifact in the opposite side of the inhomogeneity at the shallow depths, which has been eliminated in the reconstructed images achieved using the optimal geometry. Conclusion: The SUR is a powerful computational tool which could be used to determine the optimal angles between the source and detector for each scanning depth.
  16 8 -
Poly (methyl methacrylate)/biphasic calcium phosphate/nano graphene bone cement for orthopedic application
Farnoosh Pahlevanzadeh, Mehdi Ebrahimian-Hosseinabadi
January-March 2019, 9(1):33-41
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_34_18  PMID:30967988
Background: The aim of this study was to make a bioactive bone cement based on poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) with suitable mechanical properties. Methods: PMMA has been modified by fabricating a composite consisting of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) 68 wt%, PMMA 31 wt% and graphene (Gr) 1 wt% (PMMA/BCP/Gr), 32 wt% of PMMA, and 68 wt% of BCP (PMMA/BCP) and pure PMMA by milling, mixing with monomer liquid, and casting. The modified cements were evaluated regarding mechanical properties, bioactivity, degradation rate, and biocompatibility. Results: The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of hydroxyapatite (HA) formed on samples surface after 28 days of immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) demonstrated that bioactivity was obtained due to the addition of BCP, and the degradation rate of the cement was enhanced as well. Investigations of mechanical properties revealed that BCP increased the elastic modulus of PMMA more than 1.5 times, but predictably decreased elongation. The addition of 1 wt% Gr increased elongation and yield strength from 16.39% ± 1.02% and 61.67 ± 1.52 Mpa for PMMA/BCP to 35.18% ± 2.42% and 78.40 ± 2.06 Mpa for PMMA/BCP/Gr, respectively. MG63 cells survival and proliferation improved from 127.55% ± 7.03% for PMMA to 201.41% ± 10.7% for PMMA/BCP/Gr on Day 4 of culture. Conclusion: According to the obtained results of mechanical and biological tests, it seems that new PMMA/BCP/Gr bone cement has a potentiality for usage in orthopedic applications.
  13 7 -
Hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal activity in paradoxical and psychophysiological insomnia
Hiwa Mohammadi, Mohammad Rezaei, Faezeh Faghihi, Habibolah Khazaie
January-March 2019, 9(1):59-67
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_31_18  PMID:30967991
Background: Although insomnia is a sex-dimorphic disorder, there is limited knowledge about the association between sex hormones and insomnia. In the present study, the level of hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis activity was investigated in patients with insomnia by measuring serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone, progesterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and sex hormone-binding globulin. Methods: Numbers of 19 patients; including 13 females (68.40%) with paradox insomnia (32–53 years; 43.20 ± 6.40) and 17 patients; including 8 females (47.05%) with psychophysiological insomnia (14–62 years; 38.40 ± 16.30) were recruited. Seventeen aged-matched normal sleeper consisted of 13 males (26–59 years; 40.70 ± 10) consisted of 13 males (76.50%) were also recruited as control group. Insomnia was diagnosed by a sleep clinician according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders-Second Edition criteria and an overnight polysomnography (PSG). A volume of 5 ml of venous blood samples were collected, prepared, and stored at 8 AM under standard condition. Serum levels of hormones were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Data were analyzed by Chi-square and ANCOVA. The associations between PSG and biochemical parameters were evaluated using multiple linear regression analysis. Results: There were no significant differences in all biochemical analyses between two insomnia subgroups (paradoxical and psychophysiological insomnia) and normal sleepers. Testosterone was positively related to maximum pulse transit time (PTT). Moreover, both LH and FSH were positively related to wake index and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion: Although there were no significant differences in all HPG's hormones between groups, both LH and FSH were associated with wake index and diastolic blood pressure. Moreover, testosterone was positively related to PTT.
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High-intensity focused ultrasound lesion detection using adaptive compressive sensing based on empirical mode decomposition
Hadi Ghasemifard, Hamid Behnam, Jahan Tavakkoli
January-March 2019, 9(1):24-32
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_17_18  PMID:30967987
Background: The main goal of ultrasound therapy is to have clinical effects in the tissue without damage to the intervening and surrounding tissues. Treatments have been developed for both in vitro and in clinical applications. HIFU therapy is one of these. Non-invasive surgeries, such as HIFU, have been developed to treat tumors or to stop bleeding. In this approach, an adequate imaging method for monitoring and controlling the treatment is required. Methods: In this paper, an adaptive compressive sensing representation of ultrasound RF echo signals is presented based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD). According to the different numbers of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) produced by the EMD, the ultrasound signals is adaptively compressive sampled in the source and then adaptively reconstructed in the receiver domains. In this paper, a new application of compressive sensing based on EMD (CS-EMD) in the monitoring of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment is presented. Non-invasive surgeries such as HIFU have been developed for various therapeutic applications. In this technique, a suitable imaging method is necessary for monitoring of the treatment to achieve adequate treatment safety and efficacy. So far, several methods have been proposed, such as ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) signal processing techniques, and imaging methods such as X-ray, MRI, and ultrasound to monitor HIFU lesions. Results: In this paper, a CS-EMD method is used to detect the HIFU thermal lesion dimensions using different types of wavelet transform. The results of the processing on the real data demonstrate the potential for this technique in image-guided HIFU therapy. Conclusions: In this study, a new application of compressive sensing in the field of monitoring of the HIFU treatment is presented. To the best of our knowledge, so far no studies on compressive sensing have been carried out in the monitoring of the HIFU. Based on the results obtained, it was showed that the number of measurements and Intrinsic Mode Functions have the function of noise reduction. In addition, results were shown that the successful reconstruction of the compressive sensing signals can be gained using a threshold based algorithm. To this end, in this paper it was shown that by selecting an suitable number of measurements, the sparse transform, and a thresholding algorithm, we can achieve a more accurate detection of the HIFU thermal lesion size.
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Convolutional mixture of experts model: A comparative study on automatic macular diagnosis in retinal optical coherence tomography imaging
Reza Rasti, Alireza Mehridehnavi, Hossein Rabbani, Fedra Hajizadeh
January-March 2019, 9(1):1-14
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_27_17  PMID:30967985
Background: Macular disorders, such as diabetic macular edema (DME) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are among the major ocular diseases. Having one of these diseases can lead to vision impairments or even permanent blindness in a not-so-long time span. So, the early diagnosis of these diseases are the main goals for researchers in the field. Methods: This study is designed in order to present a comparative analysis on the recent convolutional mixture of experts (CMoE) models for distinguishing normal macular OCT from DME and AMD. For this purpose, we considered three recent CMoE models called Mixture ensemble of convolutional neural networks (ME-CNN), Multi-scale Convolutional Mixture of Experts (MCME), and Wavelet-based Convolutional Mixture of Experts (WCME) models. For this research study, the models were evaluated on a database of three different macular OCT sets. Two first OCT sets were acquired by Heidelberg imaging systems consisting of 148 and 45 subjects respectively and set3 was constituted of 384 Bioptigen OCT acquisitions. To provide better performance insight into the CMoE ensembles, we extensively analyzed the models based on the 5-fold cross-validation method and various classification measures such as precision and average area under the ROC curve (AUC). Results: Experimental evaluations showed that the MCME and WCME outperformed the ME-CNN model and presented overall precisions of 98.14% and 96.06% for aligned OCTs respectively. For non-aligned retinal OCTs, these values were 93.95% and 95.56%. Conclusion: Based on the comparative analysis, although the MCME model outperformed the other CMoE models in the analysis of aligned retinal OCTs, the WCME offers a robust model for diagnosis of non-aligned retinal OCTs. This allows having a fast and robust computer-aided system in macular OCT imaging which does not rely on the routine computerized processes such as denoising, segmentation of retinal layers, and also retinal layers alignment.
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NOTICE OF RETRACTION
Retraction: A review of coronary vessel segmentation algorithms

January-March 2019, 9(1):76-76
DOI:10.4103/2228-7477.253755  PMID:30967994
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MEETING REPORT
Workshop on light in medicine – Isfahan University of Medical Sciences-December 30, 2014
Alireza Mehri Dehnavi, Fateme Kazemi Faramarzi
October-December 2015, 5(4):259-260
DOI:10.4103/2228-7477.168652  
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