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Design and implementation of a customable automatic vehicle location system in ambulances and emergency vehicle systems
Alireza Shirani, Mohammadreza Sehhati
July-September 2019, 9(3):165-173
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_41_18  PMID:31544056
Background: Automatic vehicle location (AVL) refers to a system that calculates the geographical location of any vehicle, i.e., latitude and longitude. Vehicle location information about one or more moving vehicles can be stored in the internal memory and accessed when vehicles are available (offline tracking). It is also possible to get location information on a real-time basis (online tracking). The real-time tracking systems designed to date may incorporate three devices: global positioning system (GPS), geographic information system, and cellular communication platforms that may be either a general packet radio service (GPRS) or any private and local radiofrequency network. Methods: The GPS-based navigation system has been designed so as to allow for user-friendly real-time tracking applications for any emergency vehicles like ambulances. First, GPS coordinates are obtained from the SIM908 module and sent via to a server transmission control protocol/internet protocol. Server codes, which are written in C#, load Google map to show real-time location. Results: We designed online tracking AVL hardware in the two simple and advanced versions. The latter enables both the ambulance driver and the data center to monitor path real-time besides enabling the vehicle driver to receive and make calls and send or receive messages. The former only sends latitude and longitude to the data server continuously, and the path travelled by vehicle is displayed. Conclusion: SIM908 integrates GSM, GPRS, and GPS in one package. It can be a proper choice for real-time economic tracking systems despite its low accuracy in finding geolocations.
  1,137 172 -
A review of controlled drug delivery systems based on cells and cell membranes
Seyed Mohammad Zargar, Darioush Khodabakhshi Hafshejani, Asghar Eskandarinia, Mohamad Rafienia, Anousheh Zargar Kharazi
July-September 2019, 9(3):181-189
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_53_18  PMID:31544058
Novel drug delivery systems have ameliorated drugs' pharmacokinetics and declined undesired ramifications while led to a better patient compliance by extending the time of release. In fact, although there has been a multitude of encouraging achievements in controlled drug release, the application of micro- and nano-carriers is confronted with some challenges such as rapid clearance and inefficient targeting. In addition, since cell systems can be an appropriate alternative to micro- and nano-particles, they have been used as biological carriers. In general, features such as stable release into blood, slow clearance, efficient targeting, and high biocompatibility are the main properties of cells applied as drug carriers. Furthermore, some cells such as erythrocytes, leukocytes, stem cells, and platelets have been used as release systems. Hence, most common cells that were used as aforementioned release systems are going to be presented in this review article.
  1,073 204 1
A generalized ghost detection and segmentation method for double-joint photographic experts group compression
Sepideh Azarianpour, Amir Reza Sadri
October-December 2019, 9(4):211-220
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_19_19  PMID:31737549
Background: The versatility of digital photographs and vast usage of image processing tools have made the image manipulation accessible and ubiquitous. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop digital image forensics tools, specifically for joint photographic experts group (JPEG) format which is the most prevailing format for storing digital photographs. Existing double JPEG methods needs improvement to reduce their sensitivity to the random grid shifts which is highly common in manipulation scenario. Also, a fully automatic pipeline, in terms of segmentation followed by the classifier is still required. Methods: First, a low-pass filter (with some modifications) is used to distinguish between high-textured and low-textured areas. Then, using the inconsistency values between the quality-factors, a grayscale image, called the ghost image, is constituted. To automate the whole method, a novel segmentation method is also proposed, which extracts the ghost borders. In the last step of the proposed method, using Kolmogorov–Smirnov statistic, the distance between two separated areas (ghost area and the rest of the image) is calculated and compared with a predefined threshold to confirm the presence of forgery/authenticity. Results: In this study, a simple yet efficient algorithm to detect double-JPEG compression is proposed. This method reveals the sub-visual differences in the quality factor in the different parts of the image. Afterward, forgery borders are extracted and are used to assess authenticity score. In our experiments, the average specificity of our segmentation method exceeds 92% and the average precision is 75%. Conclusion: The final binary results for classification are compared with six state-of-the-art methods. According to several performance metrics, our method outperforms the previously proposed ones.
  1,083 166 -
The measurement of thyroid absorbed dose by gafchromic™ EBT2 film and changes in thyroid hormone levels following radiotherapy in patients with breast cancer
Leyla Ansari, Neda Nasiri, Fahimeh Aminolroayaei, Karim Ghazikhanlou Sani, Masoumeh Dorri-Giv, Razzagh Abedi-Firouzjah, Dariush Sardari
January-March 2020, 10(1):42-47
Background: Radiotherapy is a main method for the treatment of breast cancer. This study aimed to measure the absorbed dose of thyroid gland using Gafchromic EBT2 film during breast cancer radiotherapy. In addition, the relationship between the absorbed dose and thyroid hormone levels was evaluated. Methods: Forty-six breast cancer patients, with the age ranged between 25 and 35 years, undergoing external radiotherapy were studied. The patients were treated with 6 and 18 MV X-ray beams, and the absorbed thyroid dose was measured by EBT2 film. Thyroid hormone levels, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxin (T4), were measured before and after the radiotherapy. Pearson's, Spearman's, and Chi-square tests were performed to evaluate the correlation between the thyroid dose and hormone levels. Results: The mean thyroid dose was 26 ± 9.45 cGy with the range of 7.85–48.35 cGy. There were not any significant differences at thyroid hormone levels between preradiotherapy and postradiotherapy (P > 0.05). There was a significant relationship between increased thyroid absorbed dose and changes in TSH and T4 levels (P < 0.05), but it was not significant in T3 level (P = 0.1). Conclusion: Regarding the results, the thyroid absorbed dose can have an effect on its function. Therefore, the thyroid gland should be considered as an organ at risk in breast cancer radiotherapy.
  1,172 76 -
An ensemble method for diagnosis of Parkinson's disease based on voice measurements
Razieh Sheibani, Elham Nikookar, Seyed Enayatollah Alavi
October-December 2019, 9(4):221-226
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_57_18  PMID:31737550
Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common destructive neurological disorder after Alzheimer's disease. Unfortunately, there is no specific test such as electroencephalography or blood test for diagnosing the disease. In accordance with the previous studies, about 90% of people with PD have some types of voice abnormalities. Therefore, voice measurements can be used to detect the disease. Methods: This study presents an ensemble-based method for identifying patients and healthy samples by class label prediction based on voice frequency characteristics. It includes three stages of data preprocessing, internal classification and ultimate classification. The outcomes of internal classifiers next to primary feature vector of samples are considered the ultimate classifier inputs. Results: According to the results, the proposed method achieved 90.6% of accuracy, 95.8% of sensitivity, and 75% of specificity, admissible compared to those of other relevant studies. Conclusion: Current experimental outcomes provide a comparative analysis of various machine learning classifiers and confirm that using ensemble-based methods has improved medical diagnostic tasks.
  1,018 206 -
A comparison between ultrasonic bath and direct sonicator on osteochondral tissue decellularization
Farin Forouzesh, Mohsen Rabbani, Shahin Bonakdar
October-December 2019, 9(4):227-233
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_64_18  PMID:31737551
Background: Decellularization techniques have been widely used in tissue engineering recently. However, applying these methods which are based on removing cells and maintaining the extracellular matrix (ECM) encountered some difficulties for dense tissues such as articular cartilage. Together with chemical agents, using physical methods is suggested to help decellularization of tissues. Methods: In this study, to improve decellularization of articular cartilage, the effects of direct and indirect ultrasonic waves as a physical method in addition to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as chemical agents with 0.1% and 1% (w/v) concentrations were examined. Decellularization process was evaluated by nucleus staining with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) and by staining glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and collagen. Results: The H and E staining indicated that 1% (w/v) SDS in addition to ultrasonic bath for 5 h significantly decreased the cell nucleus residue to lacuna ratio by 66%. Scanning electron microscopy showed that using direct sonication caused formation of micropores on the surface of the sample which results in better penetration of decellularization material and better cell attachment after decellularization. Alcian Blue and Picrosirius Red staining represented GAG and collagen, respectively, which maintained in ECM structure after decellularization by ultrasonic bath and direct sonicator. Conclusion: Ultrasonic bath can help better penetration of the decellularization material into the cartilage. This improves the speed of the decellularization process while it has no significant defect on the structure of the tissue.
  896 174 -
Gas sensor array system properties for detecting bacterial biofilms
Suryani Dyah Astuti, Yanuar Mukhammad, Sirlus Andreanto Jasman Duli, Alfian Pramudita Putra, Ernie Maduratna Setiawatie, Kuwat Triyana
July-September 2019, 9(3):158-164
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_60_18  PMID:31544055
Background: Gas sensor array system is a device that mimics the work of how the nose smells using the gas sensors that could give response toward specific odors. It is used for characterizing the different blended gas that is suited with the biological working nose principle. Thus, it could be used to detect the dental and oral diseases. Periodontitis is one of the diseases caused by the damage on the teeth due to the chronic infection on the gingival structure marked with bacterial plaque and calculus. This study aims to develop an electric nose for odor detection application on the periodontal bacterial biofilm as early detection device for dental and oral disease. Methods: This device is designed as a portable device to ease the data acquisition. The measured data were stored at a database system connected to a real-time computer. A gas array sensor system with six gas sensors (TGS 826, TGS 2602, TGS 2600, TGS 2611, TGS 2612, and TGS 2620) has been assembled for the early detection application for dental and oral disease excreted by the bacterial biofilm that caused dental and oral disease, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Streptococcus mutans, and Enterococcus faecalis. Results: TGS 826 and TGS 2602 sensor had the best response showed by the high ADC delta value. Conclusion: GS 826 and TGS 2602 sensor could be used as a candidate for early detection device for dental and oral disease.
  850 189 -
Nonlinear analysis of electroencephalogram signals while listening to the holy Quran
Mahsa Vaghefi, Ali Motie Nasrabadi, Seyed Mohammad Reza Hashemi Golpayegani, Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, Shahriar Gharibzadeh
April-June 2019, 9(2):100-110
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_37_18  PMID:31316903
Background: Electrical activity of the brain, resulting from electrochemical signaling between neurons, is recorded by electroencephalogram (EEG). The neural network has complex behavior at different levels that strongly confirms the nonlinear nature of interactions in the human brain. This study has been designed and implemented with the aim of determining the effects of religious beliefs and the effect of listening to Holy Quran on electrical activity of the brain of the Iranian Persian-speaking Muslim volunteers. Methods: The brain signals of 47 Persian-speaking Muslim volunteers while listening to the Holy Quran consciously, and while listening to the Holy Quran and the Arabic text unconsciously were used. Therefore, due to the nonlinear nature of EEG signals, these signals are studied using approximate entropy, sample entropy, Hurst exponent, and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. Results: Statistical analysis of the results has shown that listening to the Holy Quran consciously increases approximate entropy and sample entropy, and decreases Hurst Exponent and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis compared to other cases. Conclusion: Consciously listening to the Holy Quran decreases self-similarity and correlation of brain signal and instead increases complexity and dynamicity in the brain.
  875 147 -
Requirement specification and modeling a wearable smart blanket system for monitoring patients in ambulance
Sorayya Rezayi, Ali Asghar Safaei, Niloofar Mohammadzadeh
October-December 2019, 9(4):234-244
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_55_18  PMID:31737552
Background: Nowadays, the role of smart systems and developed tools such as wearable systems for monitoring the patients and controlling their conditions consistently has increased significantly. The present research sought to identify the factors which are essential for designing a wearable smart blanket system and modeling the proposed systems. Methods: To this aim, the requirements for creating the proposed system in ambulance were described after determining the features related to wearable systems by conducting on a comparative study. First, some studies were performed to identify the wearable system development. Then, the elicited questionnaire was given to the physicians and medical informatics specialists. Finally, the extracted requirements were implemented for modeling a smart blanket system. Results: Based on the results, the wearable smart blanket system includes some specific characteristics such as monitoring the important signs, communicating with the surroundings, processing the signals instantly, and storing all important signs. In addition, they should involve some nonfunctional characteristics such as easy installment and function, interactivity, error fault tolerance, low energy consumption, and the accuracy of sign stability. Then, based on the requirements and data elements extracted from the questionnaire, the system was modeled as a detailed design of the proposed technical blanket system. Based on the results, the architecture of the designed system could provide expected scenarios by using the Active Review for Intermediate Design-oriented scenario-based evaluation method. Conclusion: Today, smart systems and tools have considerably developed in terms of monitoring the patients and controlling their conditions. Therefore, wearable systems can be implemented for monitoring the health status of patients in ambulance.
  870 125 -
The ellipselet transform
Zahra Khodabandeh, Hossein Rabbani, Alireza Mehri Dehnavi, Omid Sarrafzadeh
July-September 2019, 9(3):145-157
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_42_17  PMID:31544054
Background: A fair amount of important objects in natural images have circular and elliptical shapes. For example, the nucleus of most of the biological cells is circular, and a number of parasites such as Oxyuris have elliptical shapes in microscopic images. Hence, atomic representations by two-dimensional (2D) basis functions based on circle and ellipse can be useful for processing these images. The first researches have been done in this domain by introducing circlet transform. Methods: The main goal of this article is expanding the circlet to a new one with elliptical basis functions. Results: In this article, we first introduce a new transform called ellipselet and then compare it with other X-let transforms including 2D-discrete wavelet transform, dual-tree complex wavelet, curvelet, contourlet, steerable pyramid, and circlet transform in the application of image denoising. Conclusion: Experimental results show that for noises under 30, the ellipselet is better than other geometrical X-lets in terms of Peak Signal to Noise Ratio, especially for Lena which contains more circular structures. However, for Barbara which has fine structures in its texture, it has worse results than dual-tree complex wavelet and steerable pyramid.
  765 181 -
Wearable wireless sensors for measuring calorie consumption
Faranak Fotouhi-Ghazvini, Saedeh Abbaspour
January-March 2020, 10(1):19-34
Background: The tracking devices could help measuring the heart rate and energy expenditure and recognizing the user's activity. The calorie measurement is a significant achievement for the fitness tracking and the continuous health monitoring. Methods: In this paper, a combination of an accelerometer and a photoplethysmography (PPG) sensor is implemented to calculate the calories consumed. These sensors were mounted next to each other and then were placed on the ankle and finger by flat cable. The sensed data are transferred via Bluetooth to a smartphone in a serial and real-time manner. An Android App is designed to display the user's health data. The average amount of consumed energy is obtained from the combination of the accelerometer sensor based on the laws of motion and the PPG sensor based on the heart rate data. Results: The designed system is tested on 10 nonathlete males and 10 nonathlete females randomly. By applying thevelet, the value of the acceleration signal variance was reduced from 3.2 to 0.8. The correlation between PPG and pulse oximeter was 0.9. Moreover, the correlation of the accelerometer and treadmill was 0.9. The root mean square error (RMSE) and the P value of the calorie output from PPG and pulse oximeter are 0.53 and 0.008, respectively. The RMSE and the P value of the calories output from the accelerometer and the treadmill are 0.42 and 0.007, respectively. Conclusion: Our device validity and reliability were good by comparing it with a typical smart band, smart watch, and smartphone available in the market. The combined PPG and the accelerometer sensors were compared with the gold standard, the pulse oximeter, and the treadmill. According to the results, there is no significant difference in the values obtained. Therefore, a mobile system is augmented with the wireless accelerometer and PPG that are connected to a smartphone. The system could be carried out with the user at any time and any place.
  781 132 -
Assessment of manganese-zinc ferrite nanoparticles as a novel magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent for the detection of 4T1 breast cancer cells
Tayebe Sobhani, Daryoush Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Mahboubeh Rostami, Maryam Zahraei, Amin Farzadniya
October-December 2019, 9(4):245-251
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_59_18  PMID:31737553
Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of manganese-zinc ferrite nanoparticles (MZF NPs) as a novel negative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents for 4T1 (mouse mammary carcinoma) and L929 (murine fibroblast) cell lines. Methods: MZF NPs and its suitable coating, polyethylene glycol (PEG) via covalent bonding, were investigated under in vitro condition. The cytotoxicity of MZF NPs was tested by 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay after 12 and 24 h of incubation. To evaluate the potential of MZF NPs as T2MRI nanocontrast agent, images were obtained from phantom containing different Fe concentrations and T2relaxivity (r2) was measured. The viability of both 4T1 breast cancer and L929 murine fibroblast cell lines incubated with different Fe concentrations. Results: In vitro T2-weighted MRI showed that signal intensity of 4T1 cells was lower than that of L929 as control cells. T2-weighted MRI showed that signal intensity of MZF NPs enhanced with increasing concentration of NPs. The values of 1/T2relaxivity (r2) for coated MZF NPs with PEG found to be 85.5 mM−1s−1 which is higher than that of commercially clinical used (Sinerem) MRI contrast agent. Conclusion: The results showed that MZF NPs have potential to detect breast cancer cells (4T1) and also have high contrast resolution between normal (L929) and cancerous cells (4T1) which is a suitable nanoprobe for T2-weighted MR imaging contrast agents.
  769 110 2
Objective assessment of skin repigmentation using a multilayer perceptron
Juan Fernando Chica, Sayonara Zaputt, Javier Encalada, Christian Salamea, Melissa Montalvo
April-June 2019, 9(2):88-99
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_52_18  PMID:31316902
Background: Vitiligo is a pathology that causes the appearance of achromic macules on the skin that can spread on to other areas of the body. It is estimated that it affects 1.2% of the world population and can disrupt the mental state of people in whom this disease has developed, generating negative feelings that can become suicidal in the worst of cases. The present work focuses on the development of a support tool that allows to objectively quantifying the repigmentation of the skin. Methods: We propose a novel method based on artificial neural networks that use characteristics of the interaction of light with the skin to determine areas of healthy skin and skin with vitiligo. We used photographs of specific areas of skin containing vitiligo. We select as independent variables: the type of skin, the amount of skin with vitiligo and the amount of repigmented skin. Considering these variables, the experiments were organized in an orthogonal table. We analyzed the result of the method based on three parameters (sensitivity, specificity, and F1-Score) and finally, its results were compared with other methods proposed in similar research. Results: The proposed method demonstrated the best performance of the three methods, and it also showed its capability to detect healthy skin and skin with vitiligo in areas up to 1 × 1 pixels. Conclusion: The results show that the proposed method has the potential to be used in clinical applications. It should be noted that the performance could be significantly improved by increasing the training patterns.
  755 117 1
Diagnosis of common headaches using hybrid expert-based systems
Monire Khayamnia, Mohammadreza Yazdchi, Aghile Heidari, Mohsen Foroughipour
July-September 2019, 9(3):174-180
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_47_18  PMID:31544057
Background: Headache is one of the most common forms of medical complaints with numerous underlying causes and many patterns of presentation. The first step for starting the treatment is the recognition stage. In this article, the problem of primary and secondary headache diagnosis is considered, and we evaluate the use of intelligence techniques and soft computing in order to predict the diagnosis of common headaches. Methods: A fuzzy expert-based system for the diagnosis of common headaches by Learning-From-Examples (LFE) algorithm is presented, in which Mamdani model was used in fuzzy inference engine using Max–Min as Or–And operators, and the Centroid method was used as defuzzification technique. In addition, this article has analyzed common headache using two classification techniques, and headache diagnosis based on a support vector machine (SVM) and multilayer perceptron (MLP)-based method has been proposed. The classifiers were used to recognize the four types of common headache, namely migraine, tension, headaches as a result of infection, and headaches as a result of increased intra cranial presser. Results: By using a dataset obtained from 190 patients, suffering from primary and secondary headaches, who were enrolled from a medical center located in Mashhad, the diagnostic fuzzy system was trained by LFE algorithm, and on an average, 123 pieces of If-Then rules were produced for fuzzy system, and it was observed that the system had the ability of correct recognition by a rate of 85%. Using the headache diagnostic system by MLP- and SVM-based decision support system, the accuracy of classification into four types improved by 88% when using the MLP and by 90% with the SVM classifier. The performance of all methods is evaluated using classification accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and specificity. Conclusion: As the linguistic rules may be incomplete when human experts express their knowledge, and according to the proximity of common headache symptoms and importance of early diagnosis, the LFE training algorithm is more effective than human expert system. Favorable results obtained by the implementation and evaluation of the suggested medical decision support system based on the MLP and SVM show that intelligence techniques can be very useful for the recognition of common headaches with similar symptoms.
  718 146 1
Image quality assessment of the digital radiography units in Tabriz, Iran: A phantom study
Nahideh Gharehaghaji, Davood Khezerloo, Tohid Abbasiazar
April-June 2019, 9(2):137-142
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_30_18  PMID:31316908
Creating a high-quality image with the low patient dose is one of the most important goals in medical X-ray imaging. In this study, the image quality parameters of the digital radiographic units in Tabriz city were considered and compared with the international protocols. The image quality parameters were measured at 11 high workload digital radiography (DR) imaging centers in Tabriz city, and the results were compared to DINN 6868/58 standards. All centers equipped with the direct DR units passed the spatial resolution, low contrast detectability, contrast dynamic range, and noise tests, while the computed radiography (CR) units only could pass the two last tests. The highest spatial resolution was observed 3.2 lp/mm in the DR unit while the lowest one was 1.8 lp/mm in the CR unit. The highest noise was measured to be 0.03 OD that was observed in the DR unit. The most difference between the nominal and measured peak kilovoltage and mAs was 3.1% and 6.8%, respectively. The entrance surface air kerma in all units was obtained <0.63 mGy. The measured half-value layer range was between 2.4 and 3.54 mmAl. The physical parameters of image quality such as spatial resolution, contrast, and noise are robustness quantitative parameters for the assessment of the image quality performance of the units. Therefore, measurement and control of these parameters using two-dimensional phantoms are very critical.
  758 106 1
Bromelain inhibitory effect on colony formation: An In vitro Study on human AGS, PC3, and MCF7 cancer cells
Farzane Raeisi, Elham Raeisi, Esfandiar Heidarian, Daryoush Shahbazi-Gahroui, Yves Lemoigne
October-December 2019, 9(4):267-273
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_42_18  PMID:31737556
Bromelain is dotted with anticancer properties on various cancer cell lines. Anticancer pathways of bromelain, as well related intervening signalization are under investigation. Investigating the inhibitory potential of bromelain on AGS, PC3, and MCF7 cells proliferation and colony formation. The bromelain inhibitory potential on AGS, PC3, and MCF7 cells proliferation at various bromelain concentrations was assessed by MTT; thereby, bromelain potency on colony formation impediment was evaluated using clonogenic assays at determined 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) on four different cell densities (10, 50, 100, and 200 cells per well). Bromelain inhibits AGS, PC3, and MCF7 cells proliferation in such a dose-dependent manner. Determined IC50to AGS, PC3, and MCF7 cells were 65, 60 and 65μg/ml respectively. At IC50, bromelain significantly suppressed the AGS, PC3, and MCF7 cells colony formation at four treated densities (10, 50, 100 and 200 cells per well). Plating efficiency percentage and cell surviving fraction were decreased after bromelain treatment to AGS, PC3, and MCF7 human cancer cells as a function of initial cell density. The 50, 50 or 100, and 10 or 50 cells per well were considered to be optimum number of initial cell density for AGS, PC3, and MCF7 cells. Cell proliferative and colony formation inhibition are two pathways to in vitro bromelain anticancer effects. The current study displayed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of bromelain, as well impeding colony formation AGS, PC3, and MCF7 human cancer cells.
  733 114 -
Providing a four-layer method based on deep belief network to improve emotion recognition in electroencephalography in brain signals
Seyed Mohammad Reza Mousavinasr, Ali Pourmohammad, Mohammad Sadegh Moayed Saffari
April-June 2019, 9(2):77-87
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_34_17  PMID:31316901
Background: One of the fields of research in recent years that has been under focused is emotion recognition in electroencephalography (EEG) signals. This study provides a four-layer method to improve people's emotion recognition through these signals and deep belief neural networks. Methods: In this study, using DEAP dataset, a four-layer method is established, which includes (1) preprocessing, (2) extracting features, (3) dimension reduction, and (4) emotion identification and estimation. To find the optimal choice in some of the steps of these layers, three different tests have been conducted. The first is finding the perfect window in feature extraction section that resulted in superiority of Hamming window to the other windows. The second is choosing the most appropriate number of filter bank and the best result was 26. The third test was also emotion recognition that its accuracy was 92.93 for arousal dimension, 92.64 for valence dimension, 93.14 for dominance dimension in two-class experiment and 76.28 for the arousal, 74.83 for the valence, and 75.64 for dominance in three-class experiment. Results: The results of this method show an improvement of 12.34% and 7.74% in two- and three-class levels in the arousal dimension. This improvement in the valence is 12.77 and 8.52, respectively. Conclusion: The results show that the proposed method can be used to improve the accuracy of emotion recognition.
  684 102 -
Evaluation of dose rate and photon energy dependence of gafchromic EBT3 film irradiating with 6 MV and Co-60 photon beams
Gholamreza Ataei, Maral Rezaei, Kourosh Ebrahimnejad Gorji, Amin Banaei, Nouraddin Abdi Goushbolagh, Bagher Farhood, Mahmoud Bagheri, Razzagh Abedi Firouzjah
July-September 2019, 9(3):204-210
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_45_18  PMID:31544061
Gafchromic films are utilized for two-dimensional dose distribution measurements, especially in radiotherapy. In this study, we investigated a close connection between energy and dose rate of Gafchromic EBT3 films irradiating with 6 MV and Co-60 photon beams over a broad dose range. EBT3 films were exposed to 6 MV and Co-60 photon beams using 4 and 2 Gy/min dose rates over a 10–400 cGy dose range. The films were scanned in red, green, and blue channels to obtain the optical density (OD)–dose curves. The OD–dose curves resulted from three-color scans for different photon energies and dose rates were compared by statistical independent t-test. For the radiations of Co-60 and 6 MV photon beams, the highest correlation was obtained between the 2 and 4 Gy/min dose rates with red and green channels, respectively. Moreover, the red channel had a greater OD response per dose value, following the green and blue channels. There was no significant difference between different photon energies' (Co-60 and 6 MV) and dose rates' (2 and 4 Gy/min) dependence on OD-dose response of EBT3 films over a broad domain of radiation dose, except for different photon energies in the blue channel. Our results revealed that the OD-dose response of EBT3 films is independent on photon energies (Co-60 and 6 MV) and dose rate (2 and 4 Gy/min) in the evaluated dose range (10–400 cGy). Therefore, the EBT3 films are suitable, consistent, and reliable instruments for dose measurements in radiotherapy.
  652 129 -
Noninvasive optical diagnostic techniques for mobile blood glucose and bilirubin monitoring
Bahareh Javid, Faranak Fotouhi-Ghazvini, Fahime Sadat Zakeri
July-September 2018, 8(3):125-139
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_8_18  PMID:30181961
Background: People with diabetes need to monitor their blood sugar levels constantly and attend health centers regularly for checkups. The aim of this study is to provide a healthcare system for mobile blood glucose and bilirubin monitoring. Methods: It includes a sensor for noninvasive blood glucose and bilirubin measurement using near-infrared spectroscopy and optical method, respectively, communicating with a smartphone. Results: It was observed that by increasing the glucose concentration, the output voltage of the sensor increases in transmittance mode and decreases in reflectance mode. Moreover, it was observed that by increasing the bilirubin concentration, the output voltage of sensor decreases in transmittance mode and increases in reflectance mode. In the collected data there was good correlations between voltage and concentration and their relationship were approximately linear. Therefore, it is possible to use noninvasive methods to predict the glucose or bilirubin concentration. In vivo experiments for glucose were carried out with 19 persons in training phase, and five persons were used for testing the model. The glucose behavior model was built into the mobile application. The average glucose concentrations from the transmittance and reflectance mode were obtained. The average percentage error was 8.27 and root mean square error was 18.52 mg/dL. Conclusions: From this research, it can be inferred that the noninvasive optical methods implemented on wireless sensors and smartphones could form a system that can be used at any time and any place in the future as an alternative to traditional invasive blood glucose and bilirubin measurement methods.
  721 59 -
An agent-based model for investigating the effect of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and its depletion on tumor immune surveillance
Armin Allahverdy, Alireza Khorrami Moghaddam, Sarah Rahbar, Sadjad Shafiekhani, Hamid Reza Mirzaie, Saeid Amanpour, Yasaman Etemadi, Jamshid Hadjati, Amir Homayoun Jafari
January-March 2019, 9(1):15-23
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_33_18  PMID:30967986
Background: To predict the behavior of biological systems, mathematical models of biological systems have been shown to be useful. In particular, mathematical models of tumor-immune system interactions have demonstrated promising results in prediction of different behaviors of tumor against the immune system. Methods: This study aimed at the introduction of a new model of tumor-immune system interaction, which includes tumor and immune cells as well as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). MDSCs are immune suppressor cells that help the tumor cells to escape the immune system. The structure of this model is agent-based which makes possible to investigate each component as a separate agent. Moreover, in this model, the effect of low dose 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on MDSCs depletion was considered. Results: Based on the findings of this study, MDSCs had suppressive effect on increment of immune cell number which consequently result in tumor cells escape the immune cells. It has also been demonstrated that low-dose 5-FU could help immune system eliminate the tumor cells through MDSCs depletion. Conclusion: Using this new agent-based model, multiple injection of low-dose 5-FU could eliminate MDSCs and therefore might have the potential to be considered in treatment of cancers.
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Evaluation of mechanical properties and cell viability of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate)-chitosan/Al2O3nanocomposite scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering
Elahe Bahremandi Toloue, Saeed Karbasi, Hossein Salehi, Mohammad Rafienia
April-June 2019, 9(2):111-116
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_56_18  PMID:31316904
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alumina nanowires as reinforcement phases in polyhydroxybutyrate-chitosan (PHB-CTS) scaffolds to apply in cartilage tissue engineering. Methods: A certain proportion of polymers and alumina was chosen. After optimization of electrospun parameters, PHB, PHB-CTS, and PHB-CTS/3% Al2O3nanocomposite scaffolds were randomly electrospun. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, water contact angle measurement, tensile strength, and chondrocyte cell culture studies were used to evaluate the physical, mechanical, and biological properties of the scaffolds. Results: The average fiber diameter of scaffolds was 300–550 nm and the porosity percentages for the first layer of all types of scaffolds were more than 81%. Scaffolds' hydrophilicity was increased by adding alumina and CTS. The tensile strength of scaffolds decreased by adding CTS and increased up to more than 10 folds after adding alumina. Chondrocyte viability and proliferation on scaffolds were better after adding CTS and alumina to PHB. Conclusion: With regard to the results, electrospun PHB-CTS/3% Al2O3scaffold has the appropriate potential to apply in cartilage tissue engineering.
  634 96 3
Alpha-wave characteristics in psychophysiological insomnia
Mohammad Rezaei, Hiwa Mohammadi, Habibolah Khazaie
October-December 2019, 9(4):259-266
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_51_18  PMID:31737555
Individuals with psychophysiological insomnia (Psych-Insomnia) would show raised cortical arousal through their initiating sleep. Frequent changes in the alpha activity can be indicative of visual cortical activation, even without visual stimulation or retinal input. Therefore, we aimed to investigate alpha-wave characteristics in Psych-Insomnia before and after sleep onset. In a case–control study, 11 individuals with Psych-Insomnia (age: 44.00 ± 13.27) and 11 age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched healthy individuals (age: 41.64 ± 15.89) were recruited for this study. An overnight polysomnography monitoring was performed. Alpha characteristics were calculated from wake before sleep onsets (WBSOs), wake after sleep onset, rapid eye movement, and nonrapid eye movement in the both groups. They include the alpha power and alpha frequency and their variability in the central region. In the WBSO, alpha activity and variability were higher in the Psych-Insomnia individuals compared to healthy individuals. In both groups, alpha frequency variability was observed at approximately 1 Hz. Alpha-wave synchronization in Psych-Insomnia individuals was higher than the group with normal sleep. Individuals with Psych-Insomnia have a lot of imagination in the wake before sleep, which can be caused by stress, everyday concerns, and daily concerns.
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Activation of p53 gene expression and synergistic antiproliferative effects of 5-fluorouracil and β-escin on MCF7 cells
Raziyeh Mazrouei, Elham Raeisi, Yves Lemoigne, Esfandiar Heidarian
July-September 2019, 9(3):196-203
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_44_18  PMID:31544060
One of the most common malignancies in women is breast cancer. β-escin has pharmacological anticancer effects. 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has antimetabolite and antiproliferative properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of 5-FU and β-escin on apoptosis, colony formation, Bcl-2 signaling protein, and p53 gene expression in MCF7 breast cancer cell line. The cytotoxic effects, the number of colonies, apoptosis, p53 gene expression, and Bcl-2 signaling protein of the combined 5-FU and β-escin on MCF7 cells were determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, clonogenic assay, flow cytometry, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and western blotting methods, respectively. Half-maximal inhibitory concentration values of β-escin and 5-FU were 80 μg/ml and 2 μM, respectively. The combination of 5-FU and β-escin on MCF7 cell viability showed a combination index equal to 0.5. The expression of p53 and apoptosis increased in the combination of 5-FU and β-escin on MCF7 cells compared to that of control group (P < 0.05). In addition, the number of colonies and Bcl-2 signaling protein in combination of 5-FU and β-escin decreased with respect to untreated control cells or single treatment of 5-FU and β-escin. The combination of 5-FU and β-escin not only has synergistic effects by increasing cell apoptosis and p53 gene expression but also decreases Bcl-2 signaling protein in MCF7 cell lines.
  594 104 1
A Semi-supervised method for tumor segmentation in mammogram images
Hanie Azary, Monireh Abdoos
January-March 2020, 10(1):12-18
Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women. Mammogram images have an important role in the treatment of various states of this cancer. In recent years, machine learning methods have been widely used for tumor segmentation in mammogram images. Pixel-based segmentation methods have been presented using both supervised and unsupervised learning approaches. Supervised learning methods are usually fast and accurate, but they usually use a large number of labeled data. Besides, providing these samples is very hard and usually expensive. Unsupervised learning methods do not require the labels of the training data for decision making and they completely ignore the prior knowledge that may lead to a low performance. Semi-supervised learning methods which use a small number of labeled data solve the problem of providing the high number of samples in supervised methods, while they usually result in a higher accuracy in comparison to the unsupervised methods. Methods: In this study, we used a semisupervised method for tumor segmentation in which the pixel information is used for the classification. The static and gray level run length matrix features for each pixel are considered as the features, and Fisher discriminant analysis (FDA) is used for feature reduction. A cotraining algorithm based on support vector machine and Bayes classifiers is proposed for tumor segmentation on MIAS data set. Results and Conclusion: The results show that the proposed method outperforms both supervised methods.
  580 115 -
Alignment of noncoding ribonucleic acids with pseudoknots using context-sensitive hidden Markov model
Nayyer Mostaghim Bakhshayesh, Mousa Shamsi, Mohammad Hossein Sedaaghi, Hossein Ebrahimnezhad
October-December 2019, 9(4):252-258
DOI:10.4103/jmss.JMSS_11_19  PMID:31737554
Up to now, various signal processing techniques have been used to predict protein-coding genes that are unsuitable for predicting ribonucleic acids (RNAs). Modeling a gene network can be employed in various fields, such as the discovery of new drugs, reducing the side effects of treatment methods, further identifying genetic diseases and treatments for genetic disorders by influencing the activity of effectual genes, preventing the growth of unwanted tissues via growth weakening and cell reproduction, and also for many other applications in the fields of medicine and agriculture. The main purpose of this study was to design a suitable algorithm based on context-sensitive hidden Markov models (csHMMs) for the alignment of secondary structures of RNAs, which can identify noncoding RNAs. In this model, several RNA families are compared, and their existing similarities are measured. An expectation–maximization algorithm is used to estimate the model's parameters. This algorithm is the standard algorithm to maximize HMM parameters. The alignment results for RNAs belonging to the hepatitis delta virus family showed an accuracy of 83.33%, a specificity of 89%, and a sensitivity of 97%, and RNAs belonging to the purine family showed an accuracy of 65%, a specificity of 76%, and a sensitivity of 76%. The results show that csHMMs, in addition to aligning the primary sequences of RNAs, would align the secondary structures of RNAs with high accuracy.
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